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Int Immunopharmacol. 2017 Jun;47:106-117. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2017.03.021. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Vitamin D reduces the inflammatory response by Porphyromonas gingivalis infection by modulating human β-defensin-3 in human gingival epithelium and periodontal ligament cells.

Author information

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
2
Department of Odontostomatological, Orthodontic and Surgical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: antonietta.rizzo@unina2.it.

Abstract

Periodontitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infection characterized by a destructive inflammatory process. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative black-pigmented anaerobe, is a major pathogen in the initiation and progression of periodontitis; it produces several virulence factors that stimulate human gingival epithelium (HGE) cells and human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells to produce various inflammatory mediators. A variety of substances, such as vitamin D, have growth-inhibitory effects on some bacterial pathogens and have shown chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory activity. We used a model with HGE and HPL cells infected with P. gingivalis to determine the influence of vitamin D on P. gingivalis growth and adhesion and the immunomodulatory effect on TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 and human-β-defensin 3 production. Our results demonstrated, firstly, the lack of any cytotoxic effect on the HGE and HPL cells when treated with vitamin D; in addition, vitamin D inhibited P. gingivalis adhesion and infectivity in HGE and HPL cells. Our study then showed that vitamin D reduced TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 production in P. gingivalis-infected HGE and HPL cells. In contrast, a significant upregulation of the human-β-defensin 3 expression in HGE and HPL cells induced by P. gingivalis was demonstrated. Our results indicate that vitamin D specifically enhances the production of the human-β-defensin 3 antimicrobial peptide and exerts an inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus suggesting that vitamin D may offer possible therapeutic applications for periodontitis.

KEYWORDS:

Cytokines; Human β-defensin-3; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Vitamin D

PMID:
28384529
DOI:
10.1016/j.intimp.2017.03.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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