Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017 Jun 1;312(6):R1004-R1016. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00393.2016. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

A novel biomarker associated with distress in humans: calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1 (CABS1).

Author information

Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas.
Pulmonary Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Quito Brain and Behavior Laboratory, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.
Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas; and.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Pulmonary Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada;


Calcium-binding protein spermatid-specific 1 (CABS1) is expressed in the human submandibular gland and has an anti-inflammatory motif similar to that in submandibular rat 1 in rats. Here, we investigate CABS1 in human saliva and its association with psychological and physiological distress and inflammation in humans. Volunteers participated across three studies: 1) weekly baseline measures; 2) a psychosocial speech and mental arithmetic stressor under evaluative threat; and 3) during academic exam stress. Salivary samples were analyzed for CABS1 and cortisol. Additional measures included questionnaires of perceived stress and negative affect; exhaled nitric oxide; respiration and cardiac activity; lung function; and salivary and nasal inflammatory markers. We identified a CABS1 immunoreactive band at 27 kDa in all participants and additional molecular mass forms in some participants. One week temporal stability of the 27-kDa band was satisfactory (test-retest reliability estimate = 0.62-0.86). Acute stress increased intensity of 18, 27, and 55 kDa bands; 27-kDa increases were associated with more negative affect and lower heart rate, sympathetic activity, respiration rate, and minute ventilation. In both acute and academic stress, changes in 27 kDa were positively associated with salivary cortisol. The 27-kDa band was also positively associated with VEGF and salivary leukotriene B4 levels. Participants with low molecular weight CABS1 bands showed reduced habitual stress and negative affect in response to acute stress. CABS1 is readily detected in human saliva and is associated with psychological and physiological indicators of stress. The role of CABS1 in inflammatory processes, stress, and stress resilience requires careful study.


acute and chronic stress; anti-inflammatory activity; calcium-binding protein spermatid-specific 1; cortisol; negative affect; saliva; submandibular rat 1

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center