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Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017 Apr 4;12(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s13023-017-0616-2.

Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome complex.

Author information

1
Forgotten Diseases Research Foundation, Santa Clara, CA, 95050, USA. vnatale@forgottendiseases.org.
2
Forgotten Diseases Research Foundation, Santa Clara, CA, 95050, USA.

Abstract

Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome complex is a very rare multisystem degenerative disorder (Orpha: 220295; OMIM: 278730, 278760, 278780, 610651). Published information on XP-CS is mostly scattered throughout the literature. We compiled statistics related to symptom prevalence in XP-CS and have written a clinical description of the syndrome. We also drew on clinical practices used in XP and in Cockayne syndrome without XP to aid management of XP-CS.Extensive searches of the literature identified 43 XP-CS patients. The diagnosis had been confirmed with molecular or biochemical methods in 42 of them. Clinical features of each patient were summarized in spreadsheets and summary statistics were generated from this data. XP patients are classified into complementation groups according to the gene that is mutated. There are four groups in XP-CS, and classification was available for 42 patients. Twenty-one were in the XP-G complementation group, 13 in XP-D, 5 in XP-B, and 3 in XP-F. Overall, the clinical features of XP-CS are very similar to those of CS without XP, with the exception of skin cancers in XP-CS. However, one intriguing finding was that cancer incidence was lower in XP-CS compared to XP alone or XP-neurological disorder. The cancer rate in XP-CS was higher than in CS without XP, an unsurprising finding. There is preliminary evidence for the existence of severity groups in XP-CS, as is the case in CS.Although health problems in XP-CS vary both in severity and in when they the first occur, there was overall homogeneity between all complementation groups and putative severity groups. Severely affected patients met fewer milestones and died at younger ages compared to more mildly affected patients.

KEYWORDS:

Cockayne syndrome; DNA repair demyelinating disease (CNS); Developmental disorders; Leukodystrophies; Xeroderma pigmentosum

PMID:
28376890
PMCID:
PMC5379700
DOI:
10.1186/s13023-017-0616-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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