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J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017 Mar 1;109(3):1-13. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djw229.

Rad51 Degradation: Role in Oncolytic Virus-Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor Combination Therapy in Glioblastoma.

Author information

1
Molecular Neurosurgery Laboratory, Brain Tumor Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Program in Virology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

Background:

Clinical success of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP i ) has been limited to repair-deficient cancers and by resistance. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSVs) selectively kill cancer cells, irrespective of mutation, and manipulate DNA damage responses (DDR). Here, we explore potential synthetic lethal-like interactions between oHSV and PARP i .

Methods:

The efficacy of combining PARP i , oHSV MG18L, and G47Δ in killing patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) was assessed using cell viability assays and Chou-Talalay synergy analysis. Effects on DDR pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle after manipulation with pharmacological inhibitors and lentivirus-mediated knockdown or overexpression were examined by immunoblotting and FACS. In vivo efficacy was evaluated in two GSC-derived orthotopic xenograft models (n = 7-8 per group). All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results:

GSCs are differentially sensitive to PARP i despite uniform inhibition of PARP activity. oHSV sensitized GSCs to PARP i , irrespective of their PARP i sensitivity through selective proteasomal degradation of key DDR proteins; Rad51, mediating the combination effects; and Chk1. Rad51 degradation required HSV DNA replication. This synthetic lethal-like interaction increased DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell death in vitro and in vivo. Combined treatment of mice bearing PARP i -sensitive or -resistant GSC-derived brain tumors greatly extended median survival compared to either agent alone (vs olaparib: P ≤.001; vs MG18L: P  = .005; median survival for sensitive of 83 [95% CI = 77 to 86], 94 [95% CI = 75 to 107], 102 [95% CI = 85 to 110], and 131 [95% CI = 108 to 170] days and for resistant of 54 [95% CI = 52 to 58], 56 [95% CI = 52 to 61], 62 [95% CI = 56 to 72], and 75 [95% CI = 64 to 90] days for mock, PARPi, oHSV, and combination, respectively).

Conclusions:

The unique oHSV property to target multiple components of DDR generates cancer selective sensitivity to PARP i . This combination of oHSV with PARP i is a new anticancer strategy that overcomes the clinical barriers of PARP i resistance and DNA repair proficiency and is applicable not only to glioblastoma, an invariably lethal tumor, but also to other tumor types.

PMID:
28376211
PMCID:
PMC6059185
DOI:
10.1093/jnci/djw229
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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