Send to

Choose Destination
J Thromb Haemost. 2017 Jun;15(6):1065-1077. doi: 10.1111/jth.13690. Epub 2017 May 9.

Predictive performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc rule in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.


Essentials The widely recommended CHA2DS2-VASc shows conflicting results in contemporary validation studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 studies validating CHA2DS2-VASc. There was high heterogeneity in stroke risks for different CHA2DS2-VASc scores. This was not explained by differences between setting of care, or by performing meta-regression.


Background The CHA2DS2-VASc decision rule is widely recommended for estimating stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), although validation studies show ambiguous and conflicting results. Objectives To: (i) review existing studies validating CHA2DS2-VASc in AF patients who are not (yet) anticoagulated; (ii) meta-analyze estimates of stroke risk per score; and (iii) explore sources of heterogeneity across the validation studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature review and random effects meta-analysis of studies externally validating CHA2DS2-VASc in AF patients not receiving anticoagulants. To explore between-study heterogeneity in stroke risk, we stratified studies to the clinical setting in which patient enrollment started, and performed meta-regression. Results In total, 19 studies were evaluated, with over two million person-years of follow-up. In studies recruiting AF patients in hospitals, stroke risks for scores of 0, 1 and 2 were 0.4% (approximate 95% prediction interval [PI] 0.2-3.2%), 1.2% (95% PI 0.1-3.8%), and 2.2% (95% PI 0.03-7.8%), respectively. These were consistently higher than those in studies recruiting patients from the open general population, with risks of 0.2% (95% PI 0.0-0.9%), 0.7% (95% PI 0.3-1.2%) and 1.5% (95% PI 0.4-3.3%) for scores of 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Heterogeneity, as reflected by the wide PIs, could not be fully explained by meta-regression. Conclusions Studies validating CHA2DS2-VASc show high heterogeneity in predicted stroke risks for different scores.


CHA2DS2-VASc; atrial fibrillation; clinical prediction rule; meta-analysis; systematic review

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center