Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Chemosphere. 2017 Jul;179:29-36. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.03.095. Epub 2017 Mar 25.

Vehicles as outdoor BFR sources: Evidence from an investigation of BFR occurrence in road dust.

Author information

1
School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang 453007, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
2
School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang 453007, China.
3
Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B152TT, United Kingdom.
4
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B152TT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: S.J.Harrad@bham.ac.uk.
5
School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang 453007, China. Electronic address: sunjh@htu.cn.

Abstract

The distribution of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including ∑8PBDEs, DBDPE, BTBPE, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PBEB in road dust (RD) collected in Xinxiang, China was characterized. Analysis of RD samples indicated that the BFR abundance declined as traffic density decreased, with total mean levels of 292, 184, 163, 104 and 70 ng g-1 dust at sites from traffic intersections, main roads, collector streets, bypasses and parks, respectively. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the majority of BFRs may be emitted from the interior of vehicles via their ventilation systems. Of the 13 analyzed substances, BDE-209 and BEH-TEBP were the most abundant components in RD from Xinxiang. Similar amounts of ∑BDEs excluding BDE-209 were found at different types of sampling sites, and thus, atmospheric deposition is also a probable source of BFRs in RD which can be subject to air transportation. The main PBDE sources were traced to commercial products including DE-71, Bromkal 79-8DE, Saytex 201E and Bromkal 82 DE mixtures. Our results confirm that the use of deca-BDE commercial mixture is a major source of PBDE contamination in RD. Risk assessment indicated the concentrations of BFRs in RD in this study do not constitute a non-cancer or cancer risk to humans through ingestion. Annual emission fluxes of the commonly detected BFRs via RD in China were estimated to be up to 4980 kg year-1.

KEYWORDS:

BFRs; Exposure; Fate; Road dust; Source

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center