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Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 1;64(5):597-604. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw808.

Socioeconomic Factors Explain Racial Disparities in Invasive Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Disease Rates.

Author information

1
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
2
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
3
University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.
4
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
5
Minnesota Department of Health, St Paul, Minnesota, USA.
6
California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland, USA.
7
Connecticut Department of Public Health, Hartford, USA.
8
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, USA.
9
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
10
Georgia Emerging Infections Program, Atlanta, USA.

Abstract

Background:

Invasive community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence in the United States is higher among black persons than white persons. We explored the extent to which socioeconomic factors might explain this racial disparity.

Methods:

A retrospective cohort was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program surveillance data for invasive community-associated MRSA cases (isolated from a normally sterile site of an outpatient or on hospital admission day ≤3 in a patient without specified major healthcare exposures) from 2009 to 2011 in 33 counties of 9 states. We used generalized estimating equations to determine census tract-level factors associated with differences in MRSA incidence and inverse odds ratio-weighted mediation analysis to determine the proportion of racial disparity mediated by socioeconomic factors.

Results:

Annual invasive community-associated MRSA incidence was 4.59 per 100000 among whites and 7.60 per 100000 among blacks (rate ratio [RR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-1.80). In the mediation analysis, after accounting for census tract-level measures of federally designated medically underserved areas, education, income, housing value, and rural status, 91% of the original racial disparity was explained; no significant association of black race with community-associated MRSA remained (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, .92-1.20).

Conclusions:

The racial disparity in invasive community-associated MRSA rates was largely explained by socioeconomic factors. The specific factors that underlie the association between census tract-level socioeconomic measures and MRSA incidence, which may include modifiable social (eg, poverty, crowding) and biological factors (not explored in this analysis), should be elucidated to define strategies for reducing racial disparities in community-associated MRSA rates.

KEYWORDS:

antibiotic resistance; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; racial disparities; social determinants of health

PMID:
28362911
PMCID:
PMC5656382
DOI:
10.1093/cid/ciw808
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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