Send to

Choose Destination
Cancer Causes Control. 2017 Jun;28(6):497-528. doi: 10.1007/s10552-017-0883-1. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Does milk intake promote prostate cancer initiation or progression via effects on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU), University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
IGFs & Metabolic Endocrinology Group, School of Clinical Sciences at North Bristol, Southmead Hospital, BS10 5NB, Bristol, UK.
Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
CLAHRC West, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
School of Oral and Dental Sciences,, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Unit in Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol, BS2 8AE, Bristol, UK.
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU), University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.



To establish whether the association between milk intake and prostate cancer operates via the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway (including IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3).


Systematic review, collating data from all relevant studies examining associations of milk with IGF, and those examining associations of IGF with prostate cancer risk and progression. Data were extracted from experimental and observational studies conducted in either humans or animals, and analyzed using meta-analysis where possible, with summary data presented otherwise.


One hundred and seventy-two studies met the inclusion criteria: 31 examining the milk-IGF relationship; 132 examining the IGF-prostate cancer relationship in humans; and 10 animal studies examining the IGF-prostate cancer relationship. There was moderate evidence that circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increase with milk (and dairy protein) intake (an estimated standardized effect size of 0.10 SD increase in IGF-I and 0.05 SD in IGFBP-3 per 1 SD increase in milk intake). There was moderate evidence that prostate cancer risk increased with IGF-I (Random effects meta-analysis OR per SD increase in IGF-I 1.09; 95% CI 1.03, 1.16; n = 51 studies) and decreased with IGFBP-3 (OR 0.90; 0.83, 0.98; n = 39 studies), but not with other growth factors. The IGFBP-3 -202A/C single nucleotide polymorphism was positively associated with prostate cancer (pooled OR for A/C vs. AA = 1.22; 95% CI 0.84, 1.79; OR for C/C vs. AA = 1.51; 1.03, 2.21, n = 8 studies). No strong associations were observed for IGF-II, IGFBP-1 or IGFBP-2 with either milk intake or prostate cancer risk. There was little consistency within the data extracted from the small number of animal studies. There was additional evidence to suggest that the suppression of IGF-II can reduce tumor size, and contradictory evidence with regards to the effect of IGFBP-3 suppression on tumor progression.


IGF-I is a potential mechanism underlying the observed associations between milk intake and prostate cancer risk.


Insulin-like growth factors; Mechanistic pathway; Meta-analysis; Milk; Prostate cancer; Systematic review

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center