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J Endod. 2017 Jun;43(6):970-976. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.01.006. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids Reduce Bone Resorption While Promoting Bone Generation in Rat Apical Periodontitis.

Author information

1
Department of Endodontics, Araçatuba Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
2
Department of Endodontics, Araçatuba Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.
3
Department of Basic Sciences, Araçatuba Dental School, UNESP Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.
4
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
5
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts; School of Dental Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.
6
Department of Endodontics, Araçatuba Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: lucianocintra@hotmail.com.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

This study evaluated the effects of the dietary supplement omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on pulp exposure-induced apical periodontitis (AP) in rats.

METHODS:

Twenty-eight male rats were divided into groups: control untreated rats (C), control rats treated with ω-3 PUFAs alone (C-O), rats with pulp exposure-induced AP, and rats with pulp exposure-induced AP treated with ω-3 PUFAs (AP-O). The ω-3 PUFAs were administered orally, once a day, for 15 days before pulp exposure and, subsequently, 30 days after pulp exposure. Rats were killed 30 days after pulp exposure, and jaws were subjected to histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to detect tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts and osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts on the bone surface of periapical area. Results were statistically evaluated by using analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference, and P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS:

The bone resorption lesion was significantly larger in the AP group compared with AP-O, C, and C-O groups (P < .05). The level of inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly elevated, and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts was significantly higher in the periapical lesions of the AP group compared with AP-O, C, and C-O groups (P < .05). The number of osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts was significantly increased in the AP-O group compared with the AP group (P > .05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs not only suppresses bone resorption but also promotes new bone formation in the periapical area of rats with AP in conjunction with downregulation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lesion.

KEYWORDS:

Apical periodontitis; endodontic infection; omega 3 fatty acids; osteocalcin

PMID:
28359664
DOI:
10.1016/j.joen.2017.01.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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