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Nutrition. 2017 May;37:22-29. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.12.005. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Rice bran enzymatic extract reduces atherosclerotic plaque development and steatosis in high-fat fed ApoE-/- mice.

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Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain. Electronic address:
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.



Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is rich in bioactive molecules such as γ-oryzanol, phytosterols, and tocotrienols. The rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) previously showed vessel remodeling prevention and lipid-lowering, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. The aim of this study was to identify RBEE hypolipidemic mechanisms and to study the effects of RBEE on the progression of atherosclerosis disease and linked vascular dysfunction and liver steatosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed low- or high-fat (LFD, HFD, respectively) and cholesterol diets.


ApoE-/- mice were fed LFD (13% kcal) or HFD (42% kcal) supplemented or not supplemented with 1 or 5% RBEE (w/w) for 23 wk. Then, serum, aorta, liver, and feces were collected and flash frozen for further analysis.


RBEE supplementation of HFD improved serum values by augmenting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and preventing total cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase increase. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was attenuated (1 and 5% RBEE) and cholesterol excretion increased (5% RBEE). Diet supplementation with 5% RBEE reduced plaque development regardless of the diet. In HFD-fed mice, both doses of RBEE reduced lipid deposition and macrophage infiltration in the aortic sinus and downregulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. None of these effects was observed in mice fed LFD. Liver steatosis was reduced by RBEE supplementation of LFD (1% RBEE) and HFD (1 and 5% RBEE) and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α expression upregulated in the HDF 5% RBEE group.


Regular consumption of RBEE-supplemented HFD reduced plaque development and liver steatosis by decreasing inflammation and hyperlipidemia through an HMG-CoA reductase activity and lipid excretion-related mechanism.


Adhesion molecules; Atherosclerosis; HMG-CoA; Macrophage infiltration; Rice bran enzymatic extract; Steatosis

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