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Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1148-1157. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140079. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; muj@ph.au.dk.
2
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway.
3
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Unit of Clinical Biostatistics, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
5
Department of Clinical Epidemiology (formerly Institute of Preventive Medicine), Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospitals-a part of Copenhagen University Hospital, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; and.
7
Department of Cardiology and.
8
Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
9
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research and Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.

KEYWORDS:

adipose tissue; carbohydrates; cohort study; dietary intake; follow-up study; obesity; omega-3 fatty acids; proteins

PMID:
28356276
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.116.140079
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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