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Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1543:259-270. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6716-2_15.

Targeting Promoter-Associated Noncoding RNA In Vivo.

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Laboratory of Experimental Therapeutics, IOR, Institute of Oncology Research, Via Vela 6, Bellinzona, 6500, Switzerland.


There are many classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), with wide-ranging functionalities (e.g., RNA editing, mediation of mRNA splicing, ribosomal function). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression. Incorrect expression or mutation of lncRNAs has been reported to be associated with several disease conditions, such a malignant transformation in humans. Importantly, pivotal players in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, such as c-Myc, may be regulated by lncRNA at promoter level. The function of lncRNA can be reduced with antisense oligonucleotides that sequester or degrade mature lncRNAs. In alternative, lncRNA transcription can be blocked by small interference RNA (RNAi), which had acquired, recently, broad interested in clinical applications. In vivo-jetPEI™ is a linear polyethylenimine mediating nucleic acid (DNA, shRNA, siRNA, oligonucelotides) delivery with high efficiency. Different in vivo delivery routes have been validated: intravenous (IV), intraperitoneal (IP), intratumoral, subcutaneous, topical, and intrathecal. High levels of nucleic acid delivery are achieved into a broad range of tissues, such as lung, salivary glands, heart, spleen, liver, and prostate upon systemic administration. In addition, in vivo-jetPEI™ is also an efficient carrier for local gene and siRNA delivery such as intratumoral or topical application on the skin. After systemic injection, siRNA can be detected and the levels can be validated in target tissues by qRT-PCR. Targeting promoter-associated lncRNAs with siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) in vivo is becoming an exciting breakthrough for the treatment of human disease.


Noncoding RNAs; Polyethylenimine; RNA interference; Small interfering RNA,; Transcriptional gene silencing

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