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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 May 24;61(6). pii: e00125-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00125-17. Print 2017 Jun.

Effect of a Health Care System Respiratory Fluoroquinolone Restriction Program To Alter Utilization and Impact Rates of Clostridium difficile Infection.

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Cardinal Health, Innovative Delivery Solutions, Houston, Texas, USA
Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
Seton Healthcare Family, Austin, Texas, USA.
Austin Infectious Diseases Consultants, Austin, Texas, USA.
University Medical Center Brackenridge, Austin, Texas, USA.
The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School, Austin, Texas, USA.
University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, Texas, USA.


Fluoroquinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes in the United States despite their association with adverse consequences, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We sought to evaluate the impact of a health care system antimicrobial stewardship-initiated respiratory fluoroquinolone restriction program on utilization, appropriateness of quinolone-based therapy based on institutional guidelines, and CDI rates. After implementation, respiratory fluoroquinolone utilization decreased from a monthly mean and standard deviation (SD) of 41.0 (SD = 4.4) days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days (PD) preintervention to 21.5 (SD = 6.4) DOT/1,000 PD and 4.8 (SD = 3.6) DOT/1,000 PD posteducation and postrestriction, respectively. Using segmented regression analysis, both education (14.5 DOT/1,000 PD per month decrease; P = 0.023) and restriction (24.5 DOT/1,000 PD per month decrease; P < 0.0001) were associated with decreased utilization. In addition, the CDI rates decreased significantly (P = 0.044) from preintervention using education (3.43 cases/10,000 PD) and restriction (2.2 cases/10,000 PD). Mean monthly CDI cases/10,000 PD decreased from 4.0 (SD = 2.1) preintervention to 2.2 (SD = 1.35) postrestriction. A significant increase in appropriate respiratory fluoroquinolone use occurred postrestriction versus preintervention in patients administered at least one dose (74/130 [57%] versus 74/232 [32%]; P < 0.001), as well as in those receiving two or more doses (47/65 [72%] versus 67/191 [35%]; P < 0.001). A significant reduction in the annual acquisition cost of moxifloxacin, the formulary respiratory fluoroquinolone, was observed postrestriction compared to preintervention within the health care system ($123,882 versus $12,273; P = 0.002). Implementation of a stewardship-initiated respiratory fluoroquinolone restriction program can increase appropriate use while reducing overall utilization, acquisition cost, and CDI rates within a health care system.


Clostridium difficile; antimicrobial stewardship; fluoroquinolones

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