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J Clin Oncol. 2017 May 20;35(15):1737-1743. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2016.72.0466. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Brachytherapy for Patients With Prostate Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/Cancer Care Ontario Joint Guideline Update.

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Joseph Chin, London Health Sciences Centre, London; Andrew Feifer, Trillium Health Partners' Fidani Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Mississauga; Arthur Jacques, Patient Representative; D. Andrew Loblaw, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; R. Bryan Rumble, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA; Marisa Kollmeier, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Elisabeth Heath, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI; Jason Efstathiou, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; Tanya Dorff, USC Norris Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA; and Barry Berman, Broward Health, Fort Lauderdale, FL.


Purpose To jointly update the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer to account for new evidence. Methods An Update Panel conducted a targeted systematic literature review and identified more recent randomized controlled trials comparing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with brachytherapy in men with prostate cancer. Results Five randomized controlled trials provided the evidence for this update. Recommendations For patients with low-risk prostate cancer who require or choose active treatment, low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR) alone, EBRT alone, and/or radical prostatectomy (RP) should be offered to eligible patients. For patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer choosing EBRT with or without androgen-deprivation therapy, brachytherapy boost (LDR or high-dose rate [HDR]) should be offered to eligible patients. For low-intermediate risk prostate cancer (Gleason 7, prostate-specific antigen < 10 ng/mL or Gleason 6, prostate-specific antigen, 10 to 20 ng/mL), LDR brachytherapy alone may be offered as monotherapy. For patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving EBRT and androgen-deprivation therapy, brachytherapy boost (LDR or HDR) should be offered to eligible patients. Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are each reasonable isotope options for patients receiving LDR brachytherapy; no recommendation can be made for or against using cesium-131 or HDR monotherapy. Patients should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials to test novel or targeted approaches to this disease. Additional information is available at and .

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