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Hand (N Y). 2017 Mar;12(2):197-201. doi: 10.1177/1558944716642765. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

The Influence of Psychological Factors on the Michigan Hand Questionnaire.

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Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.


Background: Psychosocial factors help account for the gap between impairment and disability. This study examines the relationship between the Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ) and commonly used psychological measures in patients with upper extremity illness. Methods: A cohort of 135 new or follow-up patients presenting to an urban academic hospital-based hand surgeon were invited to complete a web-based version of the MHQ, Abbreviated Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and two Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-based questionnaires: Pain Interference and Depression. Bivariate and multivariable analyses measured the correlation of these psychological measures with MHQ. Results: Accounting for potential confounding factors in multivariable regression, upper extremity disability as rated by the MHQ was independently associated with PROMIS Depression, PROMIS Pain Interference, visit type, and working status. The model accounted for 37% of the variability in MHQ scores, with PROMIS Pain Interference having the most influence. Conclusion: Among the non-pathophysiological factors that contribute to patient-to-patient variation in MHQ scores, the measure of less effective coping strategies and symptoms of depression were most influential. Our data add to the evidence of the pivotal role of emotional health in upper extremity symptoms and limitations and the importance of psychosocial considerations in the care of hand illness.


MHQ; PROMIS; functionality; psychology; questionnaire

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