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Arthropod Struct Dev. 2017 Jul;46(4):537-551. doi: 10.1016/j.asd.2017.03.003. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

No sight, no smell? - Brain anatomy of two amphipod crustaceans with different lifestyles.

Author information

1
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Biologie, Vergleichende Zoologie, Philippstr. 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany.
2
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Biologie, Vergleichende Zoologie, Philippstr. 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: gerhard.scholtz@rz.hu-berlin.de.

Abstract

The brain anatomy of Niphargus puteanus and Orchestia cavimana, two amphipod species with different lifestyles, has been studied using a variety of recent techniques. The general aspects of the brain anatomy of both species correspond to those of other malacostracans. However, both species lack hemiellipsoid bodies. Furthermore, related to their lifestyle certain differences have been observed. The aquatic subterranean species N. puteanus lacks eye structures, the optic nerve, and the two outer optic neuropils lamina and medulla. Only partial remains of the lobula have been detected. In contrast to this, the central complex in the protocerebrum and the olfactory glomeruli in the deutocerebrum are well differentiated. The terrestrial species Orchestia cavimana shows a reduced first antenna, the absence of olfactory neuropils in the deutocerebrum, and a reduction of the olfactory globular tract. The characteristics in defining the hemiellipsoid bodies are critically discussed. Contradictions about presence or absence of this neuropil are due to different conceptualizations. A comparison with other crustaceans that live in dark environments reveal similar patterns of optic system reduction, but to different degrees following a centripetal pattern. Retaining the olfactory system seems a general problem of terrestrialization in crustaceans with the notable exception of terrestrial hermit crabs.

KEYWORDS:

Adaptation; Niphargus; Orchestia; Serotonin; Subterranean; Terrestrialization

PMID:
28344111
DOI:
10.1016/j.asd.2017.03.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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