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J Hepatol. 2017 Aug;67(2):224-236. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.03.014. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Global epidemiology of HCV subtypes and resistance-associated substitutions evaluated by sequencing-based subtype analyses.

Author information

Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA. Electronic address:
Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.
Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, USA.
King's College Hospital Foundation Trust, London, UK.



HCV genotype, subtype, and presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) are key determinants for the selection of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment regimens. However, current HCV genotyping assays have limitations in differentiating between HCV subtypes, and RAS prevalence is largely undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate HCV epidemiology in 12,615 patient samples from 28 different countries across five geographic regions.


We compared HCV genotype and subtypes using INNO-LiPA 2.0 vs. amplicon sequencing among 8,945 patients from phase II/III clinical trials of DAAs. Global HCV molecular epidemiology in 12,615 patients was investigated. Subtype RAS prevalence was determined by population or deep sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses investigating subtype diversity were performed.


Although there was high concordance between INNO-LiPA and sequencing for genotype determination, INNO-LiPA was insufficient for subtype determination for genotype 2, 3, 4, and 6. Sequencing provided subtype refinement for 42%, 10%, 81%, and 78% of genotype 2, 3, 4, and six patients, respectively. Genotype discordance (genotype 2-genotype 1) was observed in 28 of 950 (3%) genotype 2 patients, consistent with inter-genotype recombinants. Sequencing-based analyses demonstrated variations in regional subtype prevalence, notably within genotype 2, 4 and 6. RAS prevalence varied by subtype, with the clinically relevant NS3 RAS Q80K found in genotype 1a, 5a and 6a and the NS5A RAS Y93H in genotype 1b, 3a, 4b, 4r and 7.


Together, these analyses provide an understanding of subtyping accuracy and RAS distribution that are crucial for the implementation of global HCV treatment strategies.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly variable, with seven genotypes and 67 subtypes characterized to date. The aim of this study was to i) compare two different methods of discriminating between genotypes; ii) investigate the prevalence of HCV subtypes for each genotype around the world; iii) find the prevalence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in different subtypes. We found that both methods showed high concordance in genotype discrimination, but specific subtypes were not always identified accurately. Sequencing-based analyses demonstrated variations in regional subtype prevalence for some genotypes, notably within GT2, 4 and 6. RAS prevalence also varied by subtype. These variations could determine how successful different drugs are for treating HCV.


Antiviral agents; Deep sequencing; Genotype; Hepatitis C virus; Resistance; Subtypes

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