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Environ Res. 2017 Jul;156:158-166. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.03.016. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Intellectual evaluation of children exposed to phthalate-tainted products after the 2011 Taiwan phthalate episode.

Author information

1
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: pchuang@nhri.org.tw.
2
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
3
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
4
Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Family Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
5
Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
7
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substance, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
8
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
9
Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, New Taipei,Taiwan.
10
Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan.
11
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan. Electronic address: hsiung@nhri.org.tw.
12
Members of the Risk Assessment of Phthalate Incident in Taiwan (RAPIT) Group.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Phthalate exposure may reduce intellectual development in young children. In 2011, numerous Taiwanese children had been reported to have consumed phthalate-tainted products. We investigated the effects of phthalate exposure on the intellectual development of these children after the 2011 Taiwan di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) episode.

METHODS:

We recruited 204 children, aged 3-12 y, from 3 hospitals in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. First-morning urine samples were collected for analyzing 5 phthalate metabolites. We applied a Bayesian model to estimate the past DEHP exposure (estDEHPADD) of each participant before the 2011 DEHP episode. Demographic information, consumption of phthalate-tainted products, and maternal education, of each participant were obtained using a questionnaire. We used the Wechsler intelligence evaluation tools for assessing the children's and maternal intelligence quotient.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The median levels of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, and mono-iso-butyl phthalate in the children were 9.97, 45.8, 32.2, 46.2, and 24.3μg/g creatinine, respectively. Using the aforementioned urinary phthalate metabolites, we found that the children's verbal comprehension index (N =98) was significantly negatively associated with urinary log10 MEOHP (β, -11.92; SE, 5.33; 95%CI, -22.52~ -1.33; P=0.028) and log10 ΣDBP metabolites (β, -10.95; SE, 4.93; 95%CI, -20.74~ -1.16; P=0.029) after adjustment for age, gender, maternal IQ and education, passive smoking, estDEHPADD, active and passive smoking during pregnancy. Through a tolerable daily intake-based approach, we only found a significant negative association between past estimate DEHPADD and VIQ≥3-<6 in preschool children whereas no correlation was observed between current DEHP exposure and IQ≥3-<6 score with/ without estimate DEHPADD adjustment. It revealed that the effect of past high-DEHP exposure on verbal-related neurodevelopment of younger child are more sensitive.

CONCLUSION:

Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to DEHP and DnBP affects intellectual development in preschool and school-aged children, particularly their language learning or expression ability.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Episode; Intellectual development; Phthalates

PMID:
28342962
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2017.03.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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