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FEBS Lett. 1988 Apr 25;231(2):275-83.

Yeast iso-1-cytochrome c: genetic analysis of structural requirements.

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Department of Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642.


We describe the use of classical and molecular genetic techniques to investigate the folding, stability, and enzymatic requirements of iso-1-cytochrome c from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interpretation of the defects associated with an extensive series of altered forms of iso-1-cytochrome c was facilitated by the recently resolved three dimensional structure of iso-1-cytochrome c [(1987) J. Mol. Biol. 199, 295-314], and by comparison with the phylogenetic series of eukaryotic cytochromes c. Residue replacements that abolish iso-1-cytochrome c function appear to do so by affecting either heme attachment or protein stability; no replacements that abolish electron transfer function without affecting protein structure were uncovered. Most nonfunctional forms retained at least partial covalent attachment to the heme moiety; heme attachment was abolished only by replacements of Cys19 and Cys22, which are required for thioether linkage, and His23, a heme ligand. Replacements were uncovered that retain function at varying levels, including replacements at evolutionarily conserved positions, some of which were structurally and functionally indistinguishable from wild type iso-1-cytochrome c.

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