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Health Soc Work. 2017 May 1;42(2):e53-e61. doi: 10.1093/hsw/hlx013.

Addressing Structural Barriers to HIV Care among Triply Diagnosed Adults: Project Bridge Oakland.

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San Francisco Public Defender's Office. RTI International, San Francisco. Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland, College Park. RTI International, San Francisco. HIV Services, Family Health Centers of San Diego. RTI International, San Francisco.


People who are "triply diagnosed" with HIV, mental health issues, and substance-related disorders face tremendous barriers connecting to and remaining in HIV care. Authors of this article implemented Project Bridge Oakland (PBO), an intervention based on harm reduction and trauma-informed care, to help maintain continuity of care for triply diagnosed adults through cycles of criminal justice involvement. From August 2011 to December 2014, a clinical social worker and an HIV physician provided intensive case management for 19 clients living in Oakland, California. By working with clients across a multitude of community, clinic, and correctional spaces while maintaining a low threshold for services, the social worker was able to engage a severely marginalized population in HIV care. This article details the PBO strategies for assisting with a wide range of services needed for community stabilization, navigating criminal justice involvement, and establishing a therapeutic relationship through mundane practices such as eating and waiting for appointments. This article illustrates how programs aimed at stabilizing triply diagnosed clients in the community and connecting them to HIV care require coordination among providers, outreach to engage clients, ample time to work with them, and flexibility to account for the complexities of their day-to-day lives and experiences.


HIV; case management; homelessness; incarceration; mental health

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