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Korean J Orthod. 2017 Mar;47(2):87-99. doi: 10.4041/kjod.2017.47.2.87. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

A three-dimensional photogrammetric analysis of the facial esthetics of the Miss Korea pageant contestants.

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Graduate School, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Orthodontics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.; Department of Postgraduate Studies, the Universidad Autonóma del Paraguay, Asunción, Paraguay.
Postgraduate Orthodontic Program, Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ, USA.; Graduate School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Orthodontics, Oral Biology Research Institute, Kyung Hee University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
Formal Adjunct Professor at UCLA and Clinical Professor at USC Orthodontics Currently Private Practice in Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Department of Orthodontics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.



The aims of this study were to measure and compare the facial dimensions of the Miss Korea pageant contestants and a selected group of women from the general population by using three-dimensional (3D) image analysis, as well as to compare various facial ratios to the golden ratio within each group.


Three-dimensional images of 52 Miss Korea pageant contestants (MK group) and 41 young female adults selected from the general population (GP group) were acquired. Fifty-four variables and ratios were measured and calculated. Intergroup comparisons were performed using multivariate analysis of variance.


Compared to the GP group, the MK group showed greater total facial height and eye width, lesser lower-facial height, and lesser facial, lower-facial, and nasal widths. Moreover, compared to the GP group, the MK group had more protruded noses with greater nasolabial angle, greater vertical curvature of the foreheads, lesser horizontal curvature of the cheek, and lesser lower-lip-and-chin volume.


The MK group had longer faces but smaller lower lips and chins than did the GP group. The golden ratio was not matching the current facial esthetic standards. These data might be beneficial for treatment planning of patients undergoing orthognathic and plastic surgeries.


3D facial photogrammetric analysis; Golden ratio; Miss Korea; Preferred facial appearance

Conflict of interest statement

The authors report no commercial, proprietary, or financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.

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