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Plant Sci. 2017 May;258:146-155. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.12.002. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

Altered expression of polyamine transporters reveals a role for spermidine in the timing of flowering and other developmental response pathways.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green Oh, 43403, United States.
Department of Surgery, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Ave. Toledo, OH 43614, United States.
Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green Oh, 43403, United States. Electronic address:


Changes in the levels of polyamines are correlated with the activation or repression of developmental response pathways, but the role of polyamine transporters in the regulation of polyamine homeostasis and thus indirectly gene expression, has not been previously addressed. Here we show that the A. thaliana and rice transporters AtPUT5 and OsPUT1 were localized to the ER, while the AtPUT2, AtPUT3, and OsPUT3 were localized to the chloroplast by transient expression in N. benthamiana. A. thaliana plants that were transformed with OsPUT1 under the control the PUT5 promoter were delayed in flowering by 16days. In contrast, put5 mutants flowered four days earlier than WT plants. The delay of flowering was associated with significantly higher levels of spermidine and spermidine conjugates in the leaves prior to flowering. A similar delay in flowering was also noted in transgenic lines with constitutive expression of either OsPUT1 or OsPUT3. All three transgenic lines had larger rosette leaves, thicker flowering stems, and produced more siliques than wild type plants. In contrast, put5 plants had smaller leaves, thinner flowering stems, and produced fewer siliques. Constitutive expression of PUTs was also associated with an extreme delay in both plant senescence and maturation rate of siliques. These experiments provide the first genetic evidence of polyamine transport in the timing of flowering, and indicate the importance of polyamine transporters in the regulation of flowering and senescence pathways.


A. thaliana; Chloroplast; Flowering time; Localization; Polyamines; Rice

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