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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug;71(8):959-967. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.12. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat: a 6-week randomized study.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Department of Food Science, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Denmark.
3
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation.

DESIGN:

Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge.

RESULTS:

Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared with the RW group (+0.15±1.28 and -0.04±0.82 kg, respectively; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Further, the decrease in fat mass in the WGR group tended to exceed that in the WGW group (P=0.07). Overall, no effect of diet on appetite sensation was observed; however, energy intake from study products was ~200 kcal lower in the WGR group when compared with that in the RW group (P<0.05), although total energy intake did not differ between groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results support a role for WGR foods in body weight regulation, when provided ad libitum. The effect may be mediated by satiation reflected in a reduction in energy intake, mainly from the wholegrain products without compensation in other parts of the diets, despite no difference in appetite.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02358122.

PMID:
28327566
DOI:
10.1038/ejcn.2017.12
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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