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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Mar 22;14(3). pii: E329. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14030329.

Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution.

Author information

1
Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan. a26154295@gmail.com.
2
Institute of Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung 402, Taiwan. a26154295@gmail.com.
3
Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan. chiralrecognize@gmail.com.
4
Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan. wei751001@gmail.com.
5
Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan. f08220927@gmail.com.
6
Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan. great.tree00@msa.hinet.net.
7
Institute of Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung 402, Taiwan. biosjyk@gmail.com.
8
Institute of Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung 402, Taiwan. tdway@mail.cmu.edu.tw.
9
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, No. 500, Lioufeng Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41354, Taiwan. tdway@mail.cmu.edu.tw.
10
Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biopharmaceutical and Food Sciences, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan. tdway@mail.cmu.edu.tw.
11
Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan. lique.unique@gmail.com.
12
Department of Applied Cosmetology/Degree Program of Cosmetology and Health Care, Kao Yuan University, No. 1821, Zhongshan Road, Lujhu District, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan. sswang168@gmail.com.

Abstract

In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO₂ concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports.

KEYWORDS:

antimicrobial efficacy; antiviral assay; chlorine dioxide (PubChem CID: 24870); inhalation toxicity; subchronic oral toxicity

PMID:
28327506
PMCID:
PMC5369164
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph14030329
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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