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3 Biotech. 2015 Apr;5(2):129-151. doi: 10.1007/s13205-014-0220-2. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Plant terpenes: defense responses, phylogenetic analysis, regulation and clinical applications.

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AIB, Amity University Rajasthan, NH-11C, Kant Kalwar, Jaipur, 303 002, India.
Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302 055, India.


The terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural products and many interesting products are extensively applied in the industrial sector as flavors, fragrances, spices and are also used in perfumery and cosmetics. Many terpenoids have biological activities and also used for medical purposes. In higher plants, the conventional acetate-mevalonic acid pathway operates mainly in the cytosol and mitochondria and synthesizes sterols, sesquiterpenes and ubiquinones mainly. In the plastid, the non-mevalonic acid pathway takes place and synthesizes hemi-, mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes along with carotenoids and phytol tail of chlorophyll. In this review paper, recent developments in the biosynthesis of terpenoids, indepth description of terpene synthases and their phylogenetic analysis, regulation of terpene biosynthesis as well as updates of terpenes which have entered in the clinical studies are reviewed thoroughly.


Clinical trials; Phylogenetic analysis; Terpene synthase; Terpenes

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