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Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Aug;18(4):529-539. doi: 10.1007/s40257-017-0270-4.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma.

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National Health Laboratory Service, Division of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 241, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB#7295, 450 West Dr., Chapel Hill, NC, 27517, USA.


Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm of people living with HIV today. In Sub-Saharan Africa, KS is among the most common cancers in men, overall. Not only HIV-positive individuals present with KS; any immune compromised person infected with KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 is at risk: the elderly, children in KSHV-endemic areas, and transplant recipients. KS diagnosis is based on detection of the viral protein latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) in the biopsy, but not all cases of KS are the same or will respond to the same therapy. Standard KS therapy has not changed in 20 years, but newer modalities are on the horizon and will be discussed.

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