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Parasit Vectors. 2017 Mar 21;10(1):150. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2085-9.

A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

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Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.
Faculty of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Tay Nguyen University, Dak Lak province, Vietnam.
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.


Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and Taenia saginata. The status of T. asiatica in Central and South Vietnam remains unascertained. To date, five outbreaks of trichinellosis have been reported in the north and northwest of Vietnam, affecting a total of 114 people and responsible for eight fatalities. In the same region, studies of free-roaming pigs showed evidence of high levels of exposure to Trichinella and, in cases where larvae were recovered, the species present were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Based on five studies, the main risk factors for pork-borne zoonoses in Vietnam include the consumption of undercooked/raw meat and vegetables and the use of night-soil for fertilization of local produce. This systematic review draws attention to the importance of these pork-borne zoonoses.


Bayesian model; Cysticercosis; Food-borne zoonoses; Taeniasis; Trichinellosis; Vietnam

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