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Environ Pollut. 2017 Jun;225:514-523. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.069. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Wood burning pollution in southern Chile: PM2.5 source apportionment using CMB and molecular markers.

Author information

1
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile; Dirección de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica UC (DICTUC), Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile.
2
Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile.
3
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile. Electronic address: jorquera@ing.puc.cl.
4
Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Abstract

Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; i.e., ambient 24-h PM2.5 concentrations have exceeded 150 μg/m3 in the winter season and the top concentration reached 372 μg/m3 in 2010. Annual mean concentrations have decreased but are still above 30 μg/m3. For the very first time, a molecular marker source apportionment of ambient organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5 was conducted in Temuco. Primary resolved sources for PM2.5 were wood smoke (37.5%), coal combustion (4.4%), diesel vehicles (3.3%), dust (2.2%) and vegetative detritus (0.7%). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 (sulfates, nitrates and ammonium) contributed 4.8% and unresolved organic aerosols (generated from volatile emissions from incomplete wood combustion), including secondary organic aerosols, contributed 47.1%. Adding the contributions of unresolved organic aerosols to those from primary wood smoke implies that wood burning is responsible for 84.6% of the ambient PM2.5 in Temuco. This predominance of wood smoke is ultimately due to widespread poverty and a lack of efficient household heating methods. The government has been implementing emission abatement policies but achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 in southern Chile remains a challenge.

KEYWORDS:

CMB-MM; Fuel poverty; Source apportionment; Southern Chile; Sustainable urban development; Wood burning

PMID:
28318790
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.069
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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