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Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017 Mar 17;18(4):222-235. doi: 10.1038/nrn.2017.15.

Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience.

Author information

1
Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
2
Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 443 Via Ortega, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
3
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
4
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Abstract

Modern optogenetics can be tuned to evoke activity that corresponds to naturally occurring local or global activity in timing, magnitude or individual-cell patterning. This outcome has been facilitated not only by the development of core features of optogenetics over the past 10 years (microbial-opsin variants, opsin-targeting strategies and light-targeting devices) but also by the recent integration of optogenetics with complementary technologies, spanning electrophysiology, activity imaging and anatomical methods for structural and molecular analysis. This integrated approach now supports optogenetic identification of the native, necessary and sufficient causal underpinnings of physiology and behaviour on acute or chronic timescales and across cellular, circuit-level or brain-wide spatial scales.

PMID:
28303019
PMCID:
PMC5708544
DOI:
10.1038/nrn.2017.15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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