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J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Oct;46(4):951-971. doi: 10.1002/jmri.25693. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Clinical quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM): Biometal imaging and its emerging roles in patient care.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ithaca, New York, USA.
3
Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, P.R. China.
4
Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China.
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
6
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.
7
RadNet, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA.
8
Department of Radiology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese & Western Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China.
9
Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, P.R. China.
10
Department of Neurosurgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, USA.
11
Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.
12
Department of Medical Pharmacology, University of Lille, Lille, France.
13
Department of Neurology and Movement Disorders, University of Lille, Lille, France.
14
Department of Toxicology, Public Health and Environment, University of Lille, Lille, France.
15
INSERM U1171, University of Lille, Lille, France.
16
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.
17
Department of Neurology, Penn State University-Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.
18
Department of Pharmacology, Penn State University-Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.
19
Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State University-Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.
20
Department of Radiology, Penn State University-Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.
21
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
22
Department of Neurology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.
23
Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.
24
Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.
25
Department of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
26
Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.
27
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
28
Oxidation Biology Unit, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
29
Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, Children's Hospital of New York, New York, New York, USA.

Abstract

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has enabled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tissue magnetic susceptibility to advance from simple qualitative detection of hypointense blooming artifacts to precise quantitative measurement of spatial biodistributions. QSM technology may be regarded to be sufficiently developed and validated to warrant wide dissemination for clinical applications of imaging isotropic susceptibility, which is dominated by metals in tissue, including iron and calcium. These biometals are highly regulated as vital participants in normal cellular biochemistry, and their dysregulations are manifested in a variety of pathologic processes. Therefore, QSM can be used to assess important tissue functions and disease. To facilitate QSM clinical translation, this review aims to organize pertinent information for implementing a robust automated QSM technique in routine MRI practice and to summarize available knowledge on diseases for which QSM can be used to improve patient care. In brief, QSM can be generated with postprocessing whenever gradient echo MRI is performed. QSM can be useful for diseases that involve neurodegeneration, inflammation, hemorrhage, abnormal oxygen consumption, substantial alterations in highly paramagnetic cellular iron, bone mineralization, or pathologic calcification; and for all disorders in which MRI diagnosis or surveillance requires contrast agent injection. Clinicians may consider integrating QSM into their routine imaging practices by including gradient echo sequences in all relevant MRI protocols.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:951-971.

KEYWORDS:

biometals; quantitative susceptibility mapping

PMID:
28295954
PMCID:
PMC5592126
DOI:
10.1002/jmri.25693
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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