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Korean J Pediatr. 2017 Feb;60(2):38-44. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2017.60.2.38. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Relationship between serum sodium level and coronary artery abnormality in Kawasaki disease.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-related multisystemic vasculitis that occurs in children, especially ensuing from a coronary artery abnormality. Sodium level is known to be related to vascular injury, which could affect the progress of KD. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum sodium levels that could predict the occurrence of cardiac and coronary artery events in KD.

METHODS:

We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 104 patients with KD from January 2015 to December 2015. Patients with serum Na levels of <135 mEq/L at the time of initial diagnosis were assigned to the hyponatremia group. Laboratory findings and echocardiographic data were analyzed for various aspects.

RESULTS:

Among the 104 patients with KD, 91 were included in the study, of whom 48 (52.7%) had hyponatremia. The degree of fever, white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, percentage of lymphocytes, total bilirubin level, brain natriuretic peptide level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein level were higher in the patients with hyponatremia. They also demonstrated a trend of larger coronary artery diameters based on Z scores.

CONCLUSION:

The severity of vascular inflammation in acute KD with hyponatremia might worsen the prognosis of coronary vasculature. Although no statistically significant correlation was found between the initial serum sodium levels and coronary arteriopathy in the patients with KD in this study, a long-term follow-up study with a larger number of enrolled patients should be designed in the future to elucidate the relationship between serum sodium level and coronary arteriopathy in patients with KD.

KEYWORDS:

Coronary arteries; KD; Sodium

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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