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Chemosphere. 2017 Jun;177:157-166. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.112. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Slow pyrolyzed biochars from crop residues for soil metal(loid) immobilization and microbial community abundance in contaminated agricultural soils.

Author information

1
Korea Biochar Research Center & School of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea.
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea.
3
Division of Plant Environmental Research, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research & Extension Services, Jinju 52773, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Bioapplication and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.
5
Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.
6
Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea.
7
Korea Biochar Research Center & School of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: soilok@kangwon.ac.kr.
8
Korea Biochar Research Center & School of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: sslee97@kangwon.ac.kr.

Abstract

This study evaluated the feasibility of using biochars produced from three types of crop residues for immobilizing Pb and As and their effects on the abundance of microbial community in contaminated lowland paddy (P-soil) and upland (U-soil) agricultural soils. Biochars were produced from umbrella tree [Maesopsis eminii] wood bark [WB], cocopeat [CP], and palm kernel shell [PKS] at 500 °C by slow pyrolysis at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1. Soils were incubated with 5% (w w-1) biochars at 25 °C and 70% water holding capacity for 45 d. The biochar effects on metal immobilization were evaluated by sequential extraction of the treated soil, and the microbial community was determined by microbial fatty acid profiles and dehydrogenase activity. The addition of WB caused the largest decrease in Pb in the exchangeable fraction (P-soil: 77.7%, U-soil: 91.5%), followed by CP (P-soil: 67.1%, U-soil: 81.1%) and PKS (P-soil: 9.1%, U-soil: 20.0%) compared to that by the control. In contrast, the additions of WB and CP increased the exchangeable As in U-soil by 84.6% and 14.8%, respectively. Alkalinity and high phosphorous content of biochars might be attributed to the Pb immobilization and As mobilization, respectively. The silicon content in biochars is also an influencing factor in increasing the As mobility. However, no considerable effects of biochars on the microbial community abundance and dehydrogenase activity were found in both soils.

KEYWORDS:

Black carbon; PLFA; Slow pyrolysis; Soil enzymes; Toxic metals

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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