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Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jul 15;590-591:60-68. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.171. Epub 2017 Mar 11.

Evaluating the impact of ambient benzene vapor concentrations on product water from Condensation Water From Air technology.

Author information

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address: Katherine.m.kinder.mil@mail.mil.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address: Christopher.a.gellasch.mil@mail.mil.
3
U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 6501 E. 11 Mile Road, Warren, MI 48397-5000, USA. Electronic address: James.s.dusenbury.civ@mail.mil.
4
U.S. Army Public Health Center, 5158 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5403, USA. Electronic address: Thomas.c.timmes.mil@mail.mil.
5
Applied Detection Technology, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, E3510 Ricketts Point Road, Gunpowder, MD, USA. Electronic address: Thomas.m.hughes94.civ@mail.mil.

Abstract

Globally, drinking water resources are diminishing in both quantity and quality. This situation has renewed interest in Condensation Water From Air (CWFA) technology, which utilizes water vapor in the air to produce water for both potable and non-potable purposes. However, there are currently insufficient data available to determine the relationship between air contaminants and the rate at which they are transferred from the air into CWFA untreated product water. This study implemented a novel experimental method utilizing an environmental test chamber to evaluate how air quality and temperature affects CWFA untreated product water quality in order to collect data that will inform the type of water treatment required to protect human health. This study found that temperature and benzene air concentration affected the untreated product water from a CWFA system. Benzene vapor concentrations representing a polluted outdoor environment resulted in benzene product water concentrations between 15% and 23% of the USEPA drinking water limit of 5μg/l. In contrast, product water benzene concentrations representing an indoor industrial environment were between 1.4 and 2.4 times higher than the drinking water limit. Lower condenser coil temperatures were correlated with an increased concentration of benzene in the product water. Environmental health professionals and engineers can integrate the results of this assessment to predict benzene concentrations in the product water and take appropriate health protective measures.

KEYWORDS:

Air quality; Atmospheric water generator; Benzene; Volatile organic compounds; Water quality; Water treatment

PMID:
28288421
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.171
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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