Send to

Choose Destination
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Oct;26(10):1155-1164. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-0972-4. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Risk factors for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

Clinical Neuropsychology Section, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Clinical Neuropsychology Section, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.


Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is highly prevalent in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals with both ADHD and ODD (ADHD + ODD) show a considerably worse prognosis compared with individuals with either ADHD or ODD. Therefore, identification of risk factors for ADHD + ODD is essential and may contribute to the development of (early) preventive interventions. Participants were matched for age, gender, and ADHD-subtype (diagnostic groups), and did not differ in IQ. Predictors included pre- and perinatal risk factors (pregnancy duration, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy), transgenerational factors (parental ADHD; parental warmth and criticism in diagnostic groups), and postnatal risk factors (parental socioeconomic status [SES], adverse life events, deviant peer affiliation). Three models were assessed, investigating risk factors for ADHD-only versus controls (N = 86), ADHD + ODD versus controls (N = 86), and ADHD + ODD versus ADHD-only (N = 90). Adverse life events and parental ADHD were risk factors for both ADHD + ODD and ADHD-only, and more adverse life events were an even stronger risk factor for comorbid ODD compared with ADHD-only. For ADHD + ODD, but not ADHD-only, parental criticism, deviant peer affiliation, and parental SES acted as risk factors. Maternal smoking during pregnancy acted as minor risk factor for ADHD-only, while higher birth weight acted as minor risk factor for ADHD + ODD. No effects of age were present. Findings emphasise the importance of these factors in the development of comorbid ODD. The identified risk factors may prove to be essential in preventive interventions for comorbid ODD in ADHD, highlighting the need for parent-focused interventions to take these factors into account.


ADHD; Comorbidity; ODD; Risk factors

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center