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Dev Biol. 2017 Sep 15;429(2):382-386. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.03.006. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Coordination of limb development by crosstalk among axial patterning pathways.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Development Program, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, CNIC, Spain.
2
Cardiovascular Development Program, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, CNIC, Spain. Electronic address: mtorres@cnic.es.

Abstract

Vertebrate limb development relies on the activity of signaling centers that promote growth and control patterning along three orthogonal axes of the limb bud. The apical ectodermal ridge, at the distal rim of the limb bud ectoderm, produces WNT and FGF signals, which promote limb bud growth and progressive distalization. The zone of polarizing activity, a discrete postero-distal mesenchymal domain, produces SHH, which stimulates growth and organizes patterning along the antero-posterior axis. The dorsal and ventral ectoderms produce, respectively, WNT7A and BMPs, which induce dorso-ventral limb fates. Interestingly, these signaling centers and the mechanisms they instruct interact with each other to coordinate events along the three axes. We review here the main interactions described between the three axial systems of the developing limb and discuss their relevance to proper limb growth and patterning.

KEYWORDS:

Apical ectodermal ridge; Axial patterning; Limb development; Morphogen; Zone of polarizing activity

PMID:
28283405
DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.03.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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