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Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Aug 1;82(3):165-175. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.030. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Imaging Genetics and Genomics in Psychiatry: A Critical Review of Progress and Potential.

Author information

1
BRAIN Lab, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address: rbogdan@wustl.edu.
2
Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland.
3
BRAIN Lab, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, St. Louis, Missouri.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.
5
Mind Research Network and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
6
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.
7
Laboratory of NeuroGenetics, Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
8
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
9
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
10
Laboratory of Behavioral and Genomic Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland.
11
Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; Neuroscience Training Program (NHK, RK, PHR, DPMT, MEE), University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (NHK, MEE), Madison, Wisconsin.
12
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland.

Abstract

Imaging genetics and genomics research has begun to provide insight into the molecular and genetic architecture of neural phenotypes and the neural mechanisms through which genetic risk for psychopathology may emerge. As it approaches its third decade, imaging genetics is confronted by many challenges, including the proliferation of studies using small sample sizes and diverse designs, limited replication, problems with harmonization of neural phenotypes for meta-analysis, unclear mechanisms, and evidence that effect sizes may be more modest than originally posited, with increasing evidence of polygenicity. These concerns have encouraged the field to grow in many new directions, including the development of consortia and large-scale data collection projects and the use of novel methods (e.g., polygenic approaches, machine learning) that enhance the quality of imaging genetic studies but also introduce new challenges. We critically review progress in imaging genetics and offer suggestions and highlight potential pitfalls of novel approaches. Ultimately, the strength of imaging genetics and genomics lies in their translational and integrative potential with other research approaches (e.g., nonhuman animal models, psychiatric genetics, pharmacologic challenge) to elucidate brain-based pathways that give rise to the vast individual differences in behavior as well as risk for psychopathology.

KEYWORDS:

Candidate; Genetics; Genomics; Imaging; MRI; Neurogenetics; Polygenic

PMID:
28283186
PMCID:
PMC5505787
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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