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Can J Cardiol. 2017 Jul;33(7):838-849. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.12.013. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Metabolic Modulators in Heart Disease: Past, Present, and Future.

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Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:


Ischemic heart disease and heart failure are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They continue to be major burden on health care systems throughout the world, despite major advances made over the past 40 years in developing new therapeutic approaches to treat these debilitating diseases. A potential therapeutic approach that has been underutilized in treating ischemic heart disease and heart failure is "metabolic modulation." Major alterations in myocardial energy substrate metabolism occur in ischemic heart disease and heart failure, and are associated with an energy deficit in the heart. A metabolic shift from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism to glycolysis, as well as an uncoupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation, plays a crucial role in the development of cardiac inefficiency (oxygen consumed per work performed) and functional impairment in ischemic heart disease as well as in heart failure. This has led to the concept that optimizing energy substrate use with metabolic modulators can be a potentially promising approach to decrease the severity of ischemic heart disease and heart failure, primarily by improving cardiac efficiency. Two approaches for metabolic modulator therapy are to stimulate myocardial glucose oxidation and/or inhibit fatty acid oxidation. In this review, the past, present, and future of metabolic modulators as an approach to optimizing myocardial energy substrate metabolism and treating ischemic heart disease and heart failure are discussed. This includes a discussion of pharmacological interventions that target enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose oxidation in the heart, as well as enzymes involved in ketone and branched chain amino acid catabolism in the heart.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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