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Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017 Jun;33(6):421-424. doi: 10.1080/09513590.2017.1291615. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

The role of progesterone therapy in early pregnancy: from physiological role to therapeutic utility.

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a Department of Gynecological Endocrinology , Poznan University of Medical Sciences , Poznan , Poland and.
b Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , University of Pisa , Pisa, Italy.


Progesterone is a steroid hormone of essential role in reproduction. In early pregnancy, it is responsible for preparation of endometrium for implantation process and maintenance of gestational sac in uterus, also by modulation of maternal immune system. Even though, several indices has been proposed as markers of endogenous progesterone synthesis (progesterone or luteinizing hormone measurements, endometrial biopsy), none has been proved to be reliable in detecting luteal phase defect. Currently, several pharmaceutical formulations are available, but in clinical setting the non-oral formulations seems to be effective in therapy. Progesterone is effective in the treatment of patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedure, as a luteal phase support. Some studies showed also its efficacy in the treatment of threatening or recurrent miscarriage, but newer trials neglected this beneficial effect. Due to controversies regarding utility of progesterone supplementation in these conditions, further studies are needed to address this issue.


Progesterone; pregnancy; therapy

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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