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J Virol. 2017 Apr 28;91(10). pii: e02237-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02237-16. Print 2017 May 15.

Glycolysis, Glutaminolysis, and Fatty Acid Synthesis Are Required for Distinct Stages of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication.

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Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Department of Biology, Northwest University, Kirkland, Washington, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA


Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KSHV infection induces and requires multiple metabolic pathways, including the glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathways, for the survival of latently infected endothelial cells. To determine the metabolic requirements for productive KSHV infection, we induced lytic replication in the presence of inhibitors of different metabolic pathways. We found that glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and FAS are all required for maximal KSHV virus production and that these pathways appear to participate in virus production at different stages of the viral life cycle. Glycolysis and glutaminolysis, but not FAS, inhibit viral genome replication and, interestingly, are required for different early steps of lytic gene expression. Glycolysis is necessary for early gene transcription, while glutaminolysis is necessary for early gene translation but not transcription. Inhibition of FAS resulted in decreased production of extracellular virions but did not reduce intracellular genome levels or block intracellular virion production. However, in the presence of FAS inhibitors, the intracellular virions are noninfectious, indicating that FAS is required for virion assembly or maturation. KS tumors support both latent and lytic KSHV replication. Previous work has shown that multiple cellular metabolic pathways are required for latency, and we now show that these metabolic pathways are required for efficient lytic replication, providing novel therapeutic avenues for KS tumors.IMPORTANCE KSHV is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, the most common tumor of AIDS patients. KS spindle cells, the main tumor cells, all contain KSHV, mostly in the latent state, during which there is limited viral gene expression. However, a percentage of spindle cells support lytic replication and production of virus and these cells are thought to contribute to overall tumor formation. Our previous findings showed that latently infected cells are sensitive to inhibitors of cellular metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and fatty acid synthesis. Here we found that these same inhibitors block the production of infectious virus from lytically infected cells, each at a different stage of viral replication. Therefore, inhibition of specific cellular metabolic pathways can both eliminate latently infected cells and block lytic replication, thereby inhibiting infection of new cells. Inhibition of metabolic pathways provides novel therapeutic approaches for KS tumors.


HHV-8; Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; fatty acid synthesis; glutaminolysis; glycolysis; herpesvirus; lytic replication; metabolism; virus assembly

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