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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Mar 8;11(3):e0005436. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005436. eCollection 2017 Mar.

Different genotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi produce distinctive placental environment genetic response in chronic experimental infection.

Author information

1
Grupo de Biología Molecular de la Enfermedad de Chagas (LaBMECh), Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular ''Dr. Héctor N. Torres" (INGEBI-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2
Departamento de Microbiología, Parasitología e Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica (IMPaM), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3
Departamento de Bioquímica e Inmunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Abstract

Congenital infection of Trypanosoma cruzi allows transmission of this parasite through generations. Despite the problematic that this entails, little is known about the placenta environment genetic response produced against infection. We performed functional genomics by microarray analysis in C57Bl/6J mice comparing placentas from uninfected animals and from animals infected with two different T. cruzi strains: K98, a clone of the non-lethal myotropic CA-I strain (TcI), and VD (TcVI), isolated from a human case of congenital infection. Analysis of networks by GeneMANIA of differentially expressed genes showed that "Secretory Granule" was a pathway down-regulated in both infected groups, whereas "Innate Immune Response" and "Response to Interferon-gamma" were pathways up-regulated in VD infection but not in K98. Applying another approach, the GSEA algorithm that detects small changes in predetermined gene sets, we found that metabolic processes, transcription and macromolecular transport were down-regulated in infected placentas environment and some pathways related to cascade signaling had opposite regulation: over-represented in VD and down-regulated in K98 group. We also have found a stronger tropism to the placental organ by VD strain, by detection of parasite DNA and RNA, suggesting living parasites. Our study is the first one to describe in a murine model the genetic response of placental environment to T. cruzi infection and suggests the development of a strong immune response, parasite genotype-dependent, to the detriment of cellular metabolism, which may contribute to control infection preventing the risk of congenital transmission.

PMID:
28273076
PMCID:
PMC5358786
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pntd.0005436
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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