Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2017 Mar 7;12(3):e0173510. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173510. eCollection 2017.

Fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae after urinary tract infection - A three year prospective cohort study.

Author information

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Medical Microbiology, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum, Norway.
Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Research Group for Host-Microbe Interactions, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.


We have performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the duration of and risk factors for prolonged fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients with community acquired urinary tract infection caused by these bacteria. From 2009 to 2011, 101 Norwegian patients were recruited. Stool swabs and questionnaires were collected every three months for one year and at the end of the study in 2012. Information on antibiotic prescriptions was collected from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Stool samples were cultured directly on ChromID ESBL agar as well as in an enrichment broth, and culture positive isolates were examined by blaCTX-M multiplex PCR. Isolates without blaCTX-M were investigated for alternative ESBL-determinants with a commercial microarray system. Time to fecal clearance of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae was also analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression was used to compare groups according to previously described risk factors. The ESBL point prevalence of fecal carriage were 61% at 4 months, 56% at 7 months, 48% at 10 months, 39% at 13 months, 19% after two years, and 15% after three years or more. We found no correlation between duration of carriage, comorbidity, antibiotic use or travel to ESBL high-prevalence countries. Prolonged carriage was associated with E. coli isolates of phylogroup B2 or D. Importantly, comparative MLST and MLVA analyses of individual paired urine and fecal E. coli isolates revealed that ESBL production commonly occurred in diverse strains within the same host. When investigating cross-transmission of ESBL producing bacteria in health care institutions, this notion should be taken into account.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center