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Ostomy Wound Manage. 2017 Jan;63(2):28-32.

Pressure Ulcer Risk and Prevention Practices in Pediatric Patients: A Secondary Analysis of Data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators®.

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Saint Francis Health System, Tulsa, OK.
University of Kansas School of Nursing, Kansas City, KS.


Little is known about pressure ulcer prevention practice among pediatric patients. To describe the frequency of pressure ulcer risk assessment in pediatric patients and pressure ulcer prevention intervention use overall and by hospital unit type, a descriptive secondary analysis was performed of data submitted to the National Database for Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®) for at least 3 of the 4 quarters in 2012. Relevant data on pressure ulcer risk from 271 hospitals across the United States extracted from the NDNQI database included patient skin and pressure ulcer risk assessment on admission, time since the last pressure ulcer risk assessment, method used to assess pressure ulcer risk, and risk status. Extracted data on pressure ulcer prevention included skin assessment, pressure-redistribution surface use, routine repositioning, nutritional support, and moisture management. These data were organized by unit type and merged with data on hospital characteristics for the analysis. The sample included 39 984 patients ages 1 day to 18 years on 678 pediatric acute care units (general pediatrics, pediatric critical care units, neonatal intensive care units, pediatric step-down units, and pediatric rehabilitation units). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze study data. Most of the pediatric patients (33 644; 89.2%) were assessed for pressure ulcer risk within 24 hours of admission. The Braden Q Scale was frequently used to assess risk on general pediatrics units (75.4%), pediatric step-down units (85.5%), pediatric critical care units (81.3%), and pediatric rehabilitation units (56.1%). In the neonatal intensive care units, another scale or method was used more often (55% to 60%) to assess pressure ulcer risk. Of the 11 203 pediatric patients (39%) determined to be at risk for pressure ulcers, the majority (10 741, 95.8%) received some kind of pressure ulcer prevention intervention during the 24 hours preceding the NDNQI pressure ulcer survey. The frequency of prevention intervention use among those at risk ranged from 99.2% for skin assessment to 70.7% for redistribution surface use. Most pediatric patients are being assessed for pressure ulcer risk, but the implementation of interventions to prevent pressure ulcers among children needs to be improved. Future qualitative research should be conducted to determine how and when clinical judgment is used to assess pressure ulcer risk and the type of pressure-redistribution surfaces used among younger pediatric patients.

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