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Front Neuroinform. 2017 Feb 16;11:9. doi: 10.3389/fninf.2017.00009. eCollection 2017.

Automated Detection of Stereotypical Motor Movements in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Recurrence Quantification Analysis.

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Holst Centre, IMEC Eindhoven, Netherlands.
Janssen Research & Development Beerse, Belgium.
Janssen Research & Development Titusville, NJ, USA.
Janssen Research & Development Spring House, PA, USA.
Department of Health Sciences, Northeastern University Boston, MA, USA.


A number of recent studies using accelerometer features as input to machine learning classifiers show promising results for automatically detecting stereotypical motor movements (SMM) in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, replicating these results across different types of accelerometers and their position on the body still remains a challenge. We introduce a new set of features in this domain based on recurrence plot and quantification analyses that are orientation invariant and able to capture non-linear dynamics of SMM. Applying these features to an existing published data set containing acceleration data, we achieve up to 9% average increase in accuracy compared to current state-of-the-art published results. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a single torso sensor can automatically detect multiple types of SMM in ASD, and that our approach allows recognition of SMM with high accuracy in individuals when using a person-independent classifier.


ASD; autism; recurrence analysis; recurrence plots; repetitive behavior; stereotypical motor movement

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