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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 May 28;27(5):925-932. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1609.09014.

Mass-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Lactobacillus sakei and Its Growth Media at Different Growth Phases.

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Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.
Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 13539, Republic of Korea.
Department of Food Science & Technology, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.


Changes in the metabolite profiles of Lactobacillus sakei and its growth media, based on different culture times (0, 6, 12, and 24 h), were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS with partial least squares discriminant analysis, in order to understand the growth characteristics of this organism. Cell and media samples of L. sakei were significantly separated on PLS-DA score plots. Cell and media metabolites, including sugars, amino acids, and organic acids, were identified as major metabolites contributing to the difference among samples. The alteration of cell and media metabolites during cell growth was strongly associated with energy production. Glucose, fructose, carnitine, tryptophan, and malic acid in the growth media were used as primary energy sources during the initial growth stage, but after the exhaustion of these energy sources, L. sakei could utilize other sources such as trehalose, citric acid, and lysine in the cell. The change in the levels of these energy sources was inversely similar to the energy production, especially ATP. Based on these identified metabolites, the metabolomic pathway associated with energy production through lactic acid fermentation was proposed. Although further studies are required, these results suggest that MS-based metabolomic analysis might be a useful tool for understanding the growth characteristics of L. sakei, the most important bacterium associated with meat and vegetable fermentation, during growth.


GC-MS; LC-MS; Lactobacillus sakei; metabolomics

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