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Lancet HIV. 2017 May;4(5):e205-e213. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30032-2. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Switching from efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide coformulated with rilpivirine and emtricitabine in virally suppressed adults with HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3b, non-inferiority study.

Author information

1
Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL, USA.
2
Midway Immunology and Research Center, Fort Pierce, FL, USA.
3
The Crofoot Research Center, Houston, TX, USA.
4
Ruane Medical, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
5
Therafirst Medical Center, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.
6
Southern California Men's Medical Group, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
7
The Research Institute, Springfield, MA, USA.
8
Spectrum Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
9
ICH Study Center, Hamburg, Denmark.
10
Hopital Saint Louis, Paris, France.
11
Kings College Hospital, London, UK.
12
Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.
13
Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.
14
Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA. Electronic address: huyen.cao@gilead.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Tenofovir alafenamide is a prodrug that reduces tenofovir plasma concentrations by 90% compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, thereby decreasing bone and renal risks. The coformulation of rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide has recently been approved, and we aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of switching to this regimen compared with remaining on coformulated efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

METHODS:

In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial, HIV-1-infected adults were enrolled at 120 hospitals and outpatient clinics in eight countries in North America and Europe. Participants were virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per mL) on efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for at least 6 months before enrolment and had creatinine clearance of at least 50 mL/min. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single-tablet regimen of rilpivirine (25 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg), and tenofovir alafenamide (25 mg) or to continue a single-tablet regimen of efavirenz (600 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg), with matching placebo. Investigators, participants, study staff, and those assessing outcomes were masked to treatment group. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (assessed by the US Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm), with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 8%. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02345226.

FINDINGS:

Between Jan 26, 2015, and Aug 27, 2015, 875 participants were randomly assigned and treated (438 with rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide and 437 with efavirenz, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate). Viral suppression at week 48 was maintained in 394 (90%) of 438 participants assigned to the tenofovir alafenamide regimen and 402 (92%) of 437 assigned to the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimen (difference -2·0%, 95·001% CI -5·9 to 1·8), demonstrating non-inferiority. 56 (13%) of 438 in participants in the rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group experienced treatment-related adverse events compared with 45 (10%) of 437 in the efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group.

INTERPRETATION:

Switching to rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide from efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was non-inferior in maintaining viral suppression and was well tolerated at 48 weeks. These findings support guidelines recommending tenofovir alafenamide-based regimens, including coformulation with rilpivirine and emtricitabine, as initial and ongoing treatment for HIV-1 infection.

FUNDING:

Gilead Sciences.

PMID:
28259776
DOI:
10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30032-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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