Format

Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 4;17(1):85. doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1248-8.

Effects of five-minute internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy and simplified emotion-focused mindfulness on depressive symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Department of Cognitive Behavioral Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.
2
Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, 1-3-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-8901, Japan. sekizawa-yoichi@rieti.go.jp.
3
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.
4
Department of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), 4-1-1 Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8553, Japan.
5
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Center, Research Center for Child Mental Development, Department of Cognitive Behavioral Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Notwithstanding a high expectation for internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for reducing depressive symptoms, many of iCBT programs have limitations such as temporary effects and high drop-out rates, possibly due to their complexity. We examined the effects of a free, simplified, 5-minute iCBT program by comparing it with a simplified emotion-focused mindfulness (sEFM) exercise and with a waiting list control group.

METHODS:

A total of 974 participants, who were recruited using the website of a market research company, were randomly assigned to the iCBT group, the sEFM group, and the control group. Those in the intervention arms performed each exercise for 5 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) at postintervention. Secondary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7). Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted.

RESULTS:

During postintervention assessment, there were no significant differences between the intervention arms and the control group in the CES-D, although the difference between the iCBT arm and control group was close to significance (pā€‰=ā€‰0.05) in favor of iCBT. There was a significant difference in the PHQ-9 in favor of the sEFM group compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in outcome measures between the three groups at the 6-week follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although both iCBT and sEFM have the potential to temporarily reduce depressive symptoms, substantial improvements are required to enhance and maintain their effects.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

This trial is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN-CTR) (ID: UMIN000015097 ) on 1 October 2014.

KEYWORDS:

Depression; Emotional acceptance; Five-minute internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy; Simplified emotion-focused mindfulness

PMID:
28259151
PMCID:
PMC5336676
DOI:
10.1186/s12888-017-1248-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center