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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;969:35-50. doi: 10.1007/978-94-024-1057-0_2.

The Evolutionary Aspects of Aquaporin Family.

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Division of Pathophysiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan.
Division of Nephrology, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, 1-847 Ohmiya, Saitama-City, Saitama, 330-8503, Japan.
Division of Pathophysiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan.


Aquaporins (AQPs ) are a family of transmembrane proteins present in almost all species including virus. They are grossly divided into three subfamilies based on the sequence around a highly conserved pore-forming NPA motif: (1) classical water -selective AQP (CAQP), (2) glycerol -permeable aquaglyceroporin (AQGP) and (3) AQP super-gene channel, superaquaporin (SAQP). AQP is composed of two tandem repeats of conserved three transmembrane domains and a NPA motif. AQP ancestors probably started in prokaryotes by the duplication of half AQP genes to be diversified into CAQPs or AQGPs by evolving a subfamily-specific carboxyl-terminal NPA motif. Both AQP subfamilies may have been carried over to unicellular eukaryotic ancestors, protists and further to multicellular organisms. Although fungus lineage has kept both AQP subfamilies, the plant lineage has lost AQGP after algal ancestors with extensive diversifications of CAQPs into PIP, TIP, SIP, XIP, HIP and LIP with a possible horizontal transfer of NIP from bacteria. Interestingly, the animal lineage has obtained new SAQP subfamily with highly deviated NPA motifs, especially at the amino-terminal halves in both prostomial and deuterostomial animals. The prostomial lineage has lost AQGP after hymenoptera, while the deuterostomial lineage has kept all three subfamilies up to the vertebrate with diversified CAQPs (AQP0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8) and AQGPs (AQP3, 7, 9, 10) with limited SAQPs (AQP11, 12) in mammals. Whole-genome duplications, local gene duplications and horizontal gene transfers may have produced the AQP diversity with adaptive selections and functional alternations in response to environment changes. With the above evolutionary perspective in mind, the function of each AQP could be speculated by comparison among species to get new insights into physiological roles of AQPs . This evolutionary guidance in AQP research will lead to deeper understandings of water and solute homeostasis.


Aquaglyceroporin; Classical AQP; Internal tandem repeat; MIP family; Super-gene family

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