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Nutrients. 2017 Mar 2;9(3). pii: E226. doi: 10.3390/nu9030226.

Micronutrient-Fortified Milk and Academic  Performance among Chinese Middle School Students:  A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. wangxiaoqin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.
2
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. huizhaozhao93@163.com.
3
Department of Nursing, Shaanxi Provincial Tumor Hospital, Xi'an 710061, China. Daixling113@126.com.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. pdterry@utk.edu.
5
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. zymoon95@126.com.
6
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. wysun201314195@163.com.
7
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. wangmx601@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.
8
Xi'an Tie Yi High School, Xi'an 710000, China. dengfu01@126.com.
9
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. 232guwei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.
10
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. shuangyan724@163.com.
11
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. ch@163.com.
12
Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China. zhbin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Many children suffer from nutritional deficiencies that may negatively affect their academic performance. This cluster-randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effects of micronutrient-fortified milk in Chinese students. Participants received either micronutrient-fortified (n = 177) or unfortified (n = 183) milk for six months. Academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies were estimated by end-of-term tests and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for micronutrients. In total, 296 students (82.2%) completed this study. Compared with the control group, students in the intervention group reported higher scores in several academic subjects (p < 0.05), including languages, mathematics, ethics, and physical performance at the end of follow-up. Students in the intervention group showed greater self-efficacy and use of cognitive strategies in learning, and reported less test anxiety (p < 0.001). Moreover, vitamin B2 deficiency (odds ratio (OR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11~0.30) and iron deficiency (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14~0.81) were less likely in the students of the intervention group, whereas vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium deficiencies were not significantly different. "Cognitive strategy" had a partial mediating effect on the test scores of English (95% CI: 1.26~3.79) and Chinese (95% CI: 0.53~2.21). Our findings suggest that micronutrient-fortified milk may improve students' academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies.

KEYWORDS:

fortified  milk;   academic  performance;   micronutrient;   middle  school  students;   motivated strategies for learning

PMID:
28257107
PMCID:
PMC5372889
DOI:
10.3390/nu9030226
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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