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J Food Sci. 2017 Apr;82(4):856-864. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13648. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk.

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Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, Dept. of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC, 27695, U.S.A.
Northeast Dairy Foods Research Center, Dept. of Food Science, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, 14853, U.S.A.


Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk.


fluid milk; light oxidation; vitamin A; vitamin D; vitamin fortification

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