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J Nutr. 2017 Apr;147(4):645-652. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.240390. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Dairy Intake Is Protective against Bone Loss in Older Vitamin D Supplement Users: The Framingham Study.

Author information

1
Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA; shivanisahni@hsl.harvard.edu.
2
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.
3
Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA.
4
Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA.

Abstract

Background: Previous studies showed beneficial effects of specific dairy foods on bone health in middle-aged adults.Objective: We examined the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, fluid dairy (milk + yogurt), and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes with bone mineral density (BMD) and 4-y percentage of change in BMD [▵%BMD; femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS)]. We further assessed whether these associations were modified by vitamin D supplement use in this cohort of older adults.Methods: Food-frequency questionnaire responses, baseline BMD (hip and spine, n = 862 in 1988-1989), and follow-up BMD (n = 628 in 1992-1993) were measured in the Framingham study, a prospective cohort study of older Caucasian men and women aged 67-93 y. Outcomes included baseline BMD and ▵%BMD. Dairy-food intakes (servings per week) were converted to energy-adjusted residuals, and linear regression was used, adjusting for covariates. These associations were further examined by vitamin D supplement use.Results: The mean age of the participants was 75 y. In the full sample, dairy-food items were not associated with BMD (P = 0.11-0.99) or with ▵%BMD (P = 0.29-0.96). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were associated with higher LS BMD (P = 0.011-0.009). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were protective against trochanter BMD loss (P = 0.009).Conclusions: In this population of older adults, higher intakes of milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese were associated with higher LS BMD, and a higher intake of milk + yogurt + cheese was protective against trochanter BMD loss among vitamin D supplement users but not among nonusers. These findings underscore that the benefits of dairy intake on the skeleton may be dependent on vitamin D intake.

KEYWORDS:

bone loss; bone mineral density; dairy food; milk; observational studies; older adults; osteoporosis; vitamin D

PMID:
28250192
PMCID:
PMC5368576
DOI:
10.3945/jn.116.240390
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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